Right now I feel there is only one person E. Boesen with whom I can really talk about him. He was a 'faithful friend.
Lund was a good friend of Georg Brandes and Julius Lange. At lunch one day I overturned a salt-shaker. Passionate as he was and intense as he easily could become, he began to scold so severely that he even said that I was a prodigal and things like that. Then I made an objection, reminding him of an old episode in the family when my sister Nicoline had dropped a very expensive tureen and Father had not said a word but pretended it was nothing at all. He replied: Well, you see, it was such an expensive thing that no scolding was needed; she realized quite well that it was wrong, but precisely when it is a trifle there must be a scolding.
Journals X3A According to Samuel Hugo Bergmann , "Kierkegaard's journals are one of the most important sources for an understanding of his philosophy". The first English edition of the journals was edited by Alexander Dru in His question was whether or not one can have a spiritual confidant. He wrote the following in his Concluding Postscript : "With regard to the essential truth, a direct relation between spirit and spirit is unthinkable. If such a relation is assumed, it actually means that the party has ceased to be spirit.
Kierkegaard's journals were the source of many aphorisms credited to the philosopher. The following passage, from 1 August , is perhaps his most oft-quoted aphorism and a key quote for existentialist studies:. What I really need is to get clear about what I must do, not what I must know, except insofar as knowledge must precede every act. What matters is to find a purpose, to see what it really is that God wills that I shall do; the crucial thing is to find a truth which is truth for me, to find the idea for which I am willing to live and die.
Not until a man has inwardly understood himself and then sees the course he is to take does his life gain peace and meaning; only then is he free of that irksome, sinister traveling companion — that irony of life, which manifests itself in the sphere of knowledge and invites true knowing to begin with a not-knowing Socrates just as God created the world from nothing.
But in the waters of morality it is especially at home to those who still have not entered the tradewinds of virtue. Here it tumbles a person about in a horrible way, for a time lets him feel happy and content in his resolve to go ahead along the right path, then hurls him into the abyss of despair. Often it lulls a man to sleep with the thought, "After all, things cannot be otherwise," only to awaken him suddenly to a rigorous interrogation.
Frequently it seems to let a veil of forgetfulness fall over the past, only to make every single trifle appear in a strong light again. When he struggles along the right path, rejoicing in having overcome temptation's power, there may come at almost the same time, right on the heels of perfect victory, an apparently insignificant external circumstance which pushes him down, like Sisyphus, from the height of the crag.
Often when a person has concentrated on something, a minor external circumstance arises which destroys everything. As in the case of a man who, weary of life, is about to throw himself into the Thames and at the crucial moment is halted by the sting of a mosquito.
Frequently a person feels his very best when the illness is the worst, as in tuberculosis.
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In vain he tries to resist it but he has not sufficient strength, and it is no help to him that he has gone through the same thing many times; the kind of practice acquired in this way does not apply here. Although his journals clarify some aspects of his work and life, Kierkegaard took care not to reveal too much.
Abrupt changes in thought, repetitive writing, and unusual turns of phrase are some among the many tactics he used to throw readers off track. Consequently, there are many varying interpretations of his journals. Kierkegaard did not doubt the importance his journals would have in the future. In December , he wrote: "Were I to die now the effect of my life would be exceptional; much of what I have simply jotted down carelessly in the Journals would become of great importance and have a great effect; for then people would have grown reconciled to me and would be able to grant me what was, and is, my right.
An important aspect of Kierkegaard's life — generally considered to have had a major influence on his work — was his broken engagement to Regine Olsen — Kierkegaard and Olsen met on 8 May and were instantly attracted to each other, but sometime around 11 August he had second thoughts. In his journals, Kierkegaard wrote idealistically about his love for her:. You, sovereign queen of my heart, Regina, hidden in the deepest secrecy of my breast, in the fullness of my life-idea, there where it is just as far to heaven as to hell—unknown divinity!
O, can I really believe the poets when they say that the first time one sees the beloved object he thinks he has seen her long before, that love like all knowledge is recollection, that love in the single individual also has its prophecies, its types, its myths, its Old Testament. Everywhere, in the face of every girl, I see features of your beauty On 8 September , Kierkegaard formally proposed to Olsen.
He soon felt disillusioned about his prospects. He broke off the engagement on 11 August , though it is generally believed that the two were deeply in love. In his journals, Kierkegaard mentions his belief that his "melancholy" made him unsuitable for marriage, but his precise motive for ending the engagement remains unclear. Kierkegaard then turned his attention to his examinations. On 13 May , he wrote, "I have no alternative than to suppose that it is God's will that I prepare for my examination and that it is more pleasing to Him that I do this than actually coming to some clearer perception by immersing myself in one or another sort of research, for obedience is more precious to him than the fat of rams.
The university panel considered it noteworthy and thoughtful, but too informal and witty for a serious academic thesis.
He was able to fund his education, his living, and several publications of his early works with his family's inheritance of approximately 31, rigsdaler. Kierkegaard published some of his works using pseudonyms and for others he signed his own name as author. Pseudonyms were used often in the early 19th century as a means of representing viewpoints other than the author's own; examples include the writers of the Federalist Papers and the Anti-Federalist Papers.
Kierkegaard employed the same technique as a way to provide examples of indirect communication. In writing under various pseudonyms to express sometimes contradictory positions, Kierkegaard is sometimes criticized for playing with various viewpoints without ever committing to one in particular. He has been described by those opposing his writings as indeterminate in his standpoint as a writer, though he himself has testified to all his work deriving from a service to Christianity.
De omnibus dubitandum est Latin: "Everything must be doubted" was not published until after his death. The book is basically an argument about faith and marriage with a short discourse at the end telling them they should stop arguing.
Eremita thinks "B", a judge, makes the most sense. Kierkegaard stressed the "how" of Christianity as well as the "how" of book reading in his works rather than the "what". These discourses were published under Kierkegaard's own name and are available as Eighteen Upbuilding Discourses today. David F. Swenson first translated the works in the s and titled them the Edifying Discourses ; however, in , Howard V. Hong translated the works again but called them the Upbuilding Discourses.
The word "upbuilding" was more in line with Kierkegaard's thought after , when he wrote Christian deliberations  about works of love. The discourse or conversation should be "upbuilding", which means one would build up the other person, or oneself, rather than tear down in order to build up. Kierkegaard said: "Although this little book which is called " discourses ," not sermons , because its author does not have authority to preach , "upbuilding discourses," not discourses for upbuilding, because the speaker by no means claims to be a teacher wishes to be only what it is, a superfluity , and desires only to remain in hiding".
On 16 October , Kierkegaard published three more books about love and faith and several more discourses. Fear and Trembling was published under the pseudonym Johannes de Silentio. He tries to see if the new science of psychology can help him understand himself. Constantin Constantius, who is the pseudonymous author of that book, is the psychologist.
At the same time, he published Three Upbuilding Discourses, under his own name, which dealt specifically with how love can be used to hide things from yourself or others. Kierkegaard questioned whether an individual can know if something is a good gift from God or not and concludes by saying, "it does not depend, then, merely upon what one sees, but what one sees depends upon how one sees; all observation is not just a receiving, a discovering, but also a bringing forth, and insofar as it is that, how the observer himself is constituted is indeed decisive.
During , he published two , three , and four more upbuilding discourses just as he did in , but here he discussed how an individual might come to know God. Theologians, philosophers and historians were all engaged in debating about the existence of God. This is direct communication and Kierkegaard thinks this might be useful for theologians, philosophers, and historians associations but not at all useful for the "single individual" who is interested in becoming a Christian.
Kierkegaard always wrote for "that single individual whom I with joy and gratitude call my reader"  The single individual must put what is understood to use or it will be lost. Reflection can take an individual only so far before the imagination begins to change the whole content of what was being thought about. Love is won by being exercised just as much as faith and patience are.
The first is the art of speaking eloquently; the second, that of thinking well; and the third, that of speaking with propriety. Critics object to the idea, which is typically part of this view, that salvation involves a sort of transaction between God and the Devil; they object to the idea, present particularly in Gregory of Nyssa's version of the view, that Christ's victory over the Devil comes partly through divine deception with Christ's divinity being hidden from the Devil until after Christ's death, when he triumphantly rises from the grave ; and they sometimes also object to the reification and personification of the forces of sin, death, and evil. These remarks apply to all bodies, whether they be sensible masses or molecules. Key to the argument is that not sinning is understood as a positive condition of maintaining uprightness or righteousness rectitudo. It is possible for the two wills to conflict, and for one to will happiness inordinately, and in this way desert justice.
He also wrote several more pseudonymous books in Philosophical Fragments , Prefaces and The Concept of Anxiety and finished the year up with Four Upbuilding Discourses, He used indirect communication in the first book and direct communication in the rest of them. He doesn't believe the question about God's existence should be an opinion held by one group and differently by another no matter how many demonstrations are made. He says it's up to the single individual to make the fruit of the Holy Spirit real because love and joy are always just possibilities.
Christendom wanted to define God's attributes once and for all but Kierkegaard was against this. His love for Regine was a disaster but it helped him because of his point of view. Kierkegaard believed "each generation has its own task and need not trouble itself unduly by being everything to previous and succeeding generations". His life here on earth attends every generation, and every generation severally, as Sacred History Kierkegaard wrote in , 'If a person can be assured of the grace of God without needing temporal evidence as a middleman or as the dispensation advantageous to him as interpreter, then it is indeed obvious to him that the grace of God is the most glorious of all.
It's the choice between the possibility of the "temporal and the eternal", "mistrust and belief, and deception and truth",  "subjective and objective". He always stressed deliberation and choice in his writings and wrote against comparison. Worldly worry always seeks to lead a human being into the small-minded unrest of comparisons, away from the lofty calmness of simple thoughts. To be clothed, then, means to be a human being-and therefore to be well clothed.